In terms of public health protection, the most important indicator in surface water monitoring is microbial fecal contamination. Despite the introduc-tion of the best available technologies, their biggest source is treated and untreated municipal wastewater. Around 90 % of the Czech population use their local sewerage system, which is linked to a WWTP, treated, and discharged into recipient waters. Monitoring of microbial contamination of the Vltava below Prague CWWTP showed a level of fecal pollution in the 10 km section below the wastewater inflow in periods with different flow rates. Smaller tributaries of the Vltava, which bring treated wastewater from local WWTPs to the Vltava, were monitored as additional sources. From April 2022 to March 2023, the amount of Escherichia coli, enterococci, thermotolerant coliform bacteria, and Clostridium perfringens were monitored at ten sampling sites. The monitoring results showed relatively significant microbial pollution of the Vltava from Prague CWWTP dis-charge and, at the same time, the river’s substantial self-cleaning ability in the following section. This creates good potential for the river’s future utilization in the monitored area, with the exception of the section directly affected by the inflow of treated wastewater from Prague CWWTP. This study could be used to raise public awareness in order to minimize the health risk caused by the river’s inappropriate utilization (possible presence of pathogenic microorganisms, including carriers of antimicrobial resistance).
Hydrochemistry, radioecology, microbiology, hydrobiology
The World Health Organization (WHO) declared an outbreak of a global health emergency on 30th January 2020 and a pandemic caused by Covid-19 in March of the same year. In our paper, we tried to find out if and how this situation affected drug consumption from the perspective of wastewater analysis. We compared the results of weekly sampling events from 2019, 2020, 2021 and 2022, which took place at approximately the same period of the year, but in 2020, 2021, and 2022 were affected by the state of emergency and other pandemic-related measures. We monitored the concentration of selected drugs – THC, methamphetamine, MDMA, cocaine, and some of their metabolites (amphetamine and benzoylecgonine) in wastewater samples taken at the inflow to wastewater treatment plants. According to our measurements, virtually all monitored drugs experienced changes in their consumption.
A decrease in species diversity is a negative consequence of many human activities. The number of native animal and plant species is decreas-ing, their populations are shrinking or completely disappearing, the number of endangered species is increasing, and non-native species are spreading. Global problems are perhaps most evident in the example of freshwater ecosystems.
Invasions of non-native species, associated with high cultural-sociological and economic losses, are currently considered one of the most sig-nificant factors in the decline of species diversity. For these reasons, the issue of non-native species is receiving considerable attention world-wide.
There are currently six species of crayfish living in the wild in the Czech Republic, of which only two are native: noble crayfish (Astacus asta-cus) and stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium). Narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) is a European species but not native to the Czech Republic. Other species – signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus), and marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax) come from North America and are invasive species [1, 3].
Assessment of trends in concentrations of chemical and physico-chemical indicators of the status of surface water bodies
This article presents the results of trend assessment of selected chemical and physicochemical indicators of surface water status. The assessment approach is based on a similar procedure for assessing significant upward trends of pollutants and trend reversals in groundwater bodies. The procedure is based on measured concentrations from 2010 to 2018 and estimates concentrations at the end of 2021, 2024, and 2027. For the trend assessment, data from Czech river basin state enterprises were used to assess the ecological status/potential and the chemical status of surface water bodies. However, only part of the profiles with measured concentrations met the time series requirements. The assessment of trends towards the end of 2024 and 2027 shows that some indicators (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, adsorbable organically bound halogens – AOX, and nitrate nitrogen) are projected to improve compared to the status as of 2018. On the other hand, a slight deterioration is predicted for biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nickel, and ammonia nitrogen.
The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is engaged in systematic monitoring and evaluation of radiological indicators in surface waters. The article describes changes in the values of radiological indicators in surface waters in the time series from 1967 to the present. The evolution of total volume alpha and beta activity, uranium concentration, and radium activity (226Ra) is described on characteristic profiles in the area of uranium-containing raw materials mining, in the vicinity of Stráž pod Ralskem, where the mining of radioactive raw materials has already been suppressed. The Ploučnice river flows through this mining area and flows into the Elbe river in Děčín near the Hřensko border crossing, where activities of radiological indicators are also monitored and documented. Following the cessation of uranium mining at the Stráž pod Ralskem deposit, uranium concentrations dropped by two orders of magnitude, and surface waters on the Ploučnice – Mimoň profile have been classified as Class I – unpolluted water for the last five years. The values of Kendall’s correlation coefficient τ for the profiles evaluated on the selected profiles during the mining period are characterized by an increasing trend (+0.7) for the indicator of total volume beta activity; after the end of mining, a decreasing trend is indicated (-0.5).
Pesticides are still an important group of substances involved in surface water pollution. Their increased occurrence in watercourses in the agricultural landscape is mainly linked to rainfall-runoff conditions, types of cultivated crops, and methods of agricultural management. In order to capture these factors, passive sampling techniques were chosen for the assessment of the load of these substances in selected catchments of water supply reservoirs in the administration of Povodí Moravy State Enterprise. These techniques consist of continuous exposure for several weeks with gradual (integrative) capture of pollution on suitable sorbents. The POCIS (polar organic chemical integrative samplers) were chosen in this work – widely used samplers suitable for capturing polar organic substances. They were applied in eight consecutive sampling campaigns to cover the entire growing season. The aim was to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics (in monthly steps) of selected pesticides and their metabolites into five water supply reservoirs. Due to the scope of the obtained data, this article is focused on the presentation of the results of tributaries into water supply reservoirs Vír I, Opatovice, and Ludkovice, which were monitored in 2021. When the sampling rate Rs was published, it was possible to recalculate the pollution captured by the passive sampler to average concentration during exposure. The results showed which tributaries into the reservoirs were loaded by these hazardous substances in the individual periods of the growing season. The results can be compared with the type of crops grown in a given year.
Okružní vzorek neboli okružák je vzorek, který umožňuje zejména laboratořím porovnávat své odborné dovednosti mezi sebou. Oficiálně jde o zkoušení způsobilosti laboratoří, jež probíhá pod záštitou Střediska pro posuzování způsobilosti laboratoří (ASLAB), a to v oblasti, na kterou se daná laboratoř zaměřuje (hydrobiologická, mikrobiologická, chemická či radiochemická). Článek informuje o přípravě okružního vzorku, jehož testování bylo součástí Určovacího kurzu klanonožců pořádaném v roce 2022 skupinou zooplanktonářů České limnologické společnosti (Limnospol).
The aim of this article is to present the results and conclusions of research which focused on recommending an appropriate approach for the creation and maintenance of fish stocks in various types of water elements, from small ornamental pools to formal water elements and large close-to-nature fish ponds. These elements form part of cultural monument complexes and heritage protected settlements (especially historic gardens and chateau parks, religious complexes, village and urban heritage reserves). Detailed results are described of a twoyear investigation of various types of water elements located in Kroměříž gardens, Červené Poříčí Chateau, and the former monastery in Osek, near Teplice, as examples of cultural monuments and their water elements. Issues of possible management of fish stocks, modifications of the aquatic environment to ensure stable conditions for fish farming, and the reduction of negative interaction of pollution and excessive or inappropriately chosen fish stocks and aesthetic perception of water elements are discussed. The results of the field investigations have shown an unsatisfactory state of virtually all locations due to water eutrophication, overgrowth of vegetation in some water elements, unregulated interventions in fish stocks, and uncontrolled fishing resulting in the reduction of predatory species population and the occurrence of invasive species. At the same time, a relatively low awareness of the possibilities of regulating fish stocks and of the principles of sustainable maintenance have been found.
This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author. Dne 3. a 4. května 2017 se bude konat konference Radiologické metody v hydrosféře 17 v hotelu Zlatá hvězda v Litomyšli. Konference se budeme zabývat změnami v legislativě: nový atomový zákon č. 263/2016 Sb., vyhláška č. 360/2016 Sb., vyhláška… Read more »
The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family (i.e. total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli) in different types of recycled waters (grey water, rain water and reclaimed water from the public city fountains) and problems with their detection (especially ensitivity and specificity of detection methods). The species composition of coliform bacteria in purified grey waters with their antibiotic resistance are presented.
Interview with Ing. Eva Juranová, head of the Department of Analysis and Assessment of Environmental Components at TGM WRI
This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author. Paní inženýrko, ve svém výzkumu se zaměřujete především na problematiku radioaktivity v životním prostředí. Bylo toto téma již od počátku v centru vaší badatelské pozornosti? Ano, dá se to tak říct. Ve VÚV TGM jsem jako čerstvý absolvent začínala… Read more »
Centrum Voda je výzkumný projekt, který hledá řešení problémů vyplývajících z klimatické změny a jejího vlivu na vodní poměry. Snažíme se nalézat odpovědi na základní otázky, jestli dokážeme zajistit dostatek kvalitní vody nejen pro potřeby člověka, ale i pro naši krajinu, zda se zvládneme vyrovnat s přívalovými povodněmi a jak dále snižovat znečištění vodního prostředí.
Use of SARS-CoV-2 virus monitoring in wastewater from WWTP of various categories for epidemic surveillance in the Czech Republic
The principle of wastewater diagnostics is a suitable complementary approach that can help to gain epidemiological information on a large part of the population in a non-invasive way. The course of the pandemic spread of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been showing a cyclical course of successive waves of Covid-19 since 2020. For this model, a systematic detection of the occurrence of its agent in wastewater is a very effective approach.
The Moravian Karst is the largest and most karstic area in the Czech Republic, and, as such, it is a protected landscape area (PLA). The karst area occupies a strip of Devonian limestone north of Brno. The north part of Moravian Karst is drained by the river Punkva and its headwaters. One of the biggest cave systems in central Europe is located there, Amaterska cave, which is more than 40 km long.
Despite the strict protection measures that are in place in the PLA, the presence of pollutants and potentially hazardous substances has recently been detected in the Punkva river and its catchment. The sources of this pollution are found both within the territory of Moravian Karst PLA and in the river´s catchment, and they are related to anthropogenic activities and land use. This article focuses on the occurrence of pesticides, especially triazine and azole pesticides and their polar metabolites. In 2020, a new significant contaminant, 1,2,4-triazole, a common relevant metabolite of azole pesticides, was found at the site concerned. These substances can have fatal effects not only on the endemic organisms living in the Moravian Karst, but they can also endanger human health because the local groundwater is used as a source of drinking water. Thanks to the studies carried out, the protection zones around the cave system have been extended, reducing the negative effects of agricultural activities in the area of interest.
The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the applicability of VNIR spectroscopy (spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum) for the prediction of forest soil properties. The most appropriate combinations of statistical pre-processing (no pre-processing, continuum removal, 1st and 2nd derivative) and processing (PLSR – partial least squares regression, PCR – principal component regression, SVM – support vector machines) methods in specific spectral bands were sought for each soil property.
In the past, the environment of the Czech Republic was contaminated with anthropogenic radionuclides as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapon testing and the Chernobyl accident. The paper summarises results of vertical migration of 137Cs in soil in selected sites, performed as part of collecting data for ground water vulnerability assessment. Three sites with a different land cover were included (forest, meadow and arable land). In order to determine vertical migration of anthropogenic radionuclides, soil samples were collected up to the depth of 100 cm and subsequently analysed using the gamma-ray spectrometry.
Somatic coliphages are a new indicator for monitoring the efficiency of water treatment and purification in the Directive (EU) 2020/2184 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2020 on the quality of water intended for human consumption and in Regulation (EU) 2020/741 of the European Parliament and of the Council from 25 May 2020 on minimum requirements for water reuse.
The aim of this contribution is the presentation of partial results of testing tertiary technology for recycling of treated urban wastewater. The obtain water will be used for watering of greenery, playgrounds, or for street cleaning. The quality of the treated water depends on the purpose of the use.
A proposal for a complete amendment to Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption was approved in February 2020. The new Directive came into force after all official procedures on 16 December 2020.
It is shown in the article, how the revision of the Czech methodical standard for abioseston analysis in water ČSN 75 7713 from December 2015 and the lowering of the limit value for abioseston in the Decree No. 252/2004 Coll. (drinking water quality) from 10 to 5% influenced results of routine laboratories.
Enterococci, together with representatives of the species Escherichia coli, belong to the so-called indicators of faecal pollution, which are used in the evaluation of the microbiological quality of bathing waters. Their determination is governed by the Decree of the Ministry of Health No. 238/2011 Coll. and performed by culture on selective agar media.
The Ministry of Health in cooperation with other related bodies compiles, on an annual basis, the List of outdoor bathing sites on surface waters where the bathing service is offered by the operator, and other surface waters used for bathing. It is compiled based on the long-term monitoring, performed, exclusively as in-situ measurements, by the regional hygiene stations. With respect to the fact that this way of monitoring is not only time-consuming but also financially demanding, the need for minimizing these expenses naturally arises.
The paper deals with the issue of pollution of river (bottom) sediments in the Odra river basin, which is located in one of the most anthropogenically polluted areas of the Czech Republic. The presented results are based on the evaluation of river sediments collected on eight selected profiles of water bodies belonging to the Odra river basin using a battery of five ecotoxicological tests including indicator organisms of different trophic levels.
Impact of the Nuclear power plant Temelín on concentration of selected radionuclides in the hydrosphere
The paper presents results and interpretation of long-term monitoring of occurrence and behaviour of selected radionuclides in the vicinity of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant (Temelin NPP).
A computational algorithms used for improvement of the system for continuous monitoring of radioactive contamination of surface waters
The article describes practical aspects of the NASVD algorithm application in the processing of gamma spectra from the network of stations for continuous monitoring of gamma activity in river water (SAGMA).
The water quality monitoring of selected streams in Prague (which harbour in their catchment area natural bathing places) during 2018–2019 included also the monitoring of two hydrobiological indicators; the phytobenthos and macroinvertebrates communities.
The paper provides actual clear information about viruses and coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, the possibility of contamination of surface water and wastewater by this virus.
The article informs about regular, almost two-year long monitoring of municipal wastewater at selected sampling points of the Prague sewerage network. Selected illicit drugs (e.g. methamphetamine, MDMA, THC, cocaine), nicotine and its metabolites and the ethanol metabolite ethyl sulphate are monitored in municipal wastewater.
Social-economic and safety risks in area are one of the main topics in these days, which in the long term affect the stability of local societies. For identification of these risks, we can use modern technology of data collection based on the analysis of illicit substances in city wastewater, as the cities are a high-risk areas from the social perspective in the Czech Republic.
Čistá voda – zdravé město: Využitelnost stávajícího systému sběru informací pro naplnění cílů projektu
Příspěvek představuje část projektu Čistá voda – zdravé město, který se zabývá predikcí možného výskytu nebezpečných chemických látek v tocích při haváriích a povodních. Seznamuje s databázemi, které jsou v současné době k danému tématu vedeny, a s jejich praktickou využitelností.
Článek popisuje monitorovací stanici vyvinutou pro potřeby monitorování radiační situace České republiky (ČR) a její potenciál pro účely připravenosti k odezvě na radiační mimořádnou událost.
Terénní stanice představují jednu z forem rybářského, resp. rybničního výzkumu. Zprvu soukromé rybářské či (hydro)biologické stanice se v našich zemích začaly objevovat již koncem 19. století, ale k rozkvětu tohoto typu badatelského programu došlo až v průběhu meziválečné éry.
Náhled do historie ukázal, že rekreace u vody, jako záliba k trávení volného času, byla odedávna rozšířena i v Praze, kde byly velmi oblíbené, dnes již zaniklé, říční plovárny. Na historický průzkum navázal v projektu „Možnosti vodní rekreace na území hlavního města Prahy (od historie po současnost)“ zcela aktuální průzkum potenciálních možností rozšíření míst ke koupání a rekreace u vody na území Prahy.
Možnost rekreačního využití některých (nejen) pražských nádrží je omezena především kvalitou přitékající vody. Článek navazuje na předchozí část a shrnuje výsledky sledování kvality vody v roce 2018 ve vybraných profilech přítoků do rybníka Šeberák (Vestecký a Kunratický potok) a do přehradní nádrže Hostivař (Botič s Pitkovickým potokem).
Článek shrnuje výsledky sledování kvality vody ve vybraných profilech Motolského a Litovického potoka, které probíhalo v roce 2018. Sledování bylo zaměřeno na změny obsahu živin (formy dusíku a fosforu), koncentrace chlorofylu-a a na kvalitativní složení společenstva fytoplanktonu a zooplanktonu.
Tato práce je zaměřena na zhodnocení kvality vody a antropogenního znečištění sedimentů ve starých ramenech Kozelská tůň a Vrť středního toku Labe. Stará říční ramena jsou významnými ekosystémy, ve kterých se může ukládat velké množství znečištěného materiálu. Tato kontaminace může pocházet z průmyslových zdrojů znečištění především z 2. pol. 20. století.
Míra eutrofizace vodní nádrže Jordán v Táboře dosáhla na přelomu milénia velmi vysoké úrovně. To významně omezilo její vodárenské i rekreační využití. V letech 2011–2014 proběhlo na nádrži poměrně rozsáhlé odbahnění, v jehož průběhu bylo odstraněno téměř 270 tis. m3 sedimentů.
This article aims to present to the general public the results of the assessment of the ecological status/potential and chemical status of surface water bodies categories “river“ and “lake“ for the period 2013 to 2015 in the Czech Republic. The assessment was carried out in 2017 by the Water Research Institute of T. G. Masaryk, p. r. i.
Water elements represent a significant part of the environment of cultural heritage sites, conservation zones and areas. To fulfil the required functions, which may include social, historical, recreational and educational, but also environmental functions; it is necessary to ensure their corresponding target state.
Past tests of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, nuclear energy facilities and tritium of natural origin are main sources of tritium in the environment. Thanks to its presence in environment and its favourable properties, tritium is used as a radiotracer.