This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author. Dne 3. a 4. května 2017 se bude konat konference Radiologické metody v hydrosféře 17 v hotelu Zlatá hvězda v Litomyšli. Konference se budeme zabývat změnami v legislativě: nový atomový zákon č. 263/2016 Sb., vyhláška č. 360/2016 Sb., vyhláška č. 422/2016 Sb., o radiační ochraně a zabezpečení radionuklidového zdroje… Read more »
Hydrochemistry, radioecology, microbiology, hydrobiology
The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family (i.e. total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli) in different types of recycled waters (grey water, rain water and reclaimed water from the public city fountains) and problems with their detection (especially ensitivity and specificity of detection methods). The species composition of coliform bacteria in purified grey waters with their antibiotic resistance are presented.
Interview with Ing. Eva Juranová, head of the Department of Analysis and Assessment of Environmental Components at TGM WRI
This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author. Paní inženýrko, ve svém výzkumu se zaměřujete především na problematiku radioaktivity v životním prostředí. Bylo toto téma již od počátku v centru vaší badatelské pozornosti? Ano, dá se to tak říct. Ve VÚV TGM jsem jako čerstvý absolvent začínala… Read more »
Centrum Voda je výzkumný projekt, který hledá řešení problémů vyplývajících z klimatické změny a jejího vlivu na vodní poměry. Snažíme se nalézat odpovědi na základní otázky, jestli dokážeme zajistit dostatek kvalitní vody nejen pro potřeby člověka, ale i pro naši krajinu, zda se zvládneme vyrovnat s přívalovými povodněmi a jak dále snižovat znečištění vodního prostředí.
Use of SARS-CoV-2 virus monitoring in wastewater from WWTP of various categories for epidemic surveillance in the Czech Republic
The principle of wastewater diagnostics is a suitable complementary approach that can help to gain epidemiological information on a large part of the population in a non-invasive way. The course of the pandemic spread of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been showing a cyclical course of successive waves of Covid-19 since 2020. For this model, a systematic detection of the occurrence of its agent in wastewater is a very effective approach.
The Moravian Karst is the largest and most karstic area in the Czech Republic, and, as such, it is a protected landscape area (PLA). The karst area occupies a strip of Devonian limestone north of Brno. The north part of Moravian Karst is drained by the river Punkva and its headwaters. One of the biggest cave systems in central Europe is located there, Amaterska cave, which is more than 40 km long.
Despite the strict protection measures that are in place in the PLA, the presence of pollutants and potentially hazardous substances has recently been detected in the Punkva river and its catchment. The sources of this pollution are found both within the territory of Moravian Karst PLA and in the river´s catchment, and they are related to anthropogenic activities and land use. This article focuses on the occurrence of pesticides, especially triazine and azole pesticides and their polar metabolites. In 2020, a new significant contaminant, 1,2,4-triazole, a common relevant metabolite of azole pesticides, was found at the site concerned. These substances can have fatal effects not only on the endemic organisms living in the Moravian Karst, but they can also endanger human health because the local groundwater is used as a source of drinking water. Thanks to the studies carried out, the protection zones around the cave system have been extended, reducing the negative effects of agricultural activities in the area of interest.
The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the applicability of VNIR spectroscopy (spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum) for the prediction of forest soil properties. The most appropriate combinations of statistical pre-processing (no pre-processing, continuum removal, 1st and 2nd derivative) and processing (PLSR – partial least squares regression, PCR – principal component regression, SVM – support vector machines) methods in specific spectral bands were sought for each soil property.
In the past, the environment of the Czech Republic was contaminated with anthropogenic radionuclides as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapon testing and the Chernobyl accident. The paper summarises results of vertical migration of 137Cs in soil in selected sites, performed as part of collecting data for ground water vulnerability assessment. Three sites with a different land cover were included (forest, meadow and arable land). In order to determine vertical migration of anthropogenic radionuclides, soil samples were collected up to the depth of 100 cm and subsequently analysed using the gamma-ray spectrometry.
Somatic coliphages are a new indicator for monitoring the efficiency of water treatment and purification in the Directive (EU) 2020/2184 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2020 on the quality of water intended for human consumption and in Regulation (EU) 2020/741 of the European Parliament and of the Council from 25 May 2020 on minimum requirements for water reuse.
The aim of this contribution is the presentation of partial results of testing tertiary technology for recycling of treated urban wastewater. The obtain water will be used for watering of greenery, playgrounds, or for street cleaning. The quality of the treated water depends on the purpose of the use.
A proposal for a complete amendment to Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption was approved in February 2020. The new Directive came into force after all official procedures on 16 December 2020.
It is shown in the article, how the revision of the Czech methodical standard for abioseston analysis in water ČSN 75 7713 from December 2015 and the lowering of the limit value for abioseston in the Decree No. 252/2004 Coll. (drinking water quality) from 10 to 5% influenced results of routine laboratories.
Enterococci, together with representatives of the species Escherichia coli, belong to the so-called indicators of faecal pollution, which are used in the evaluation of the microbiological quality of bathing waters. Their determination is governed by the Decree of the Ministry of Health No. 238/2011 Coll. and performed by culture on selective agar media.
The Ministry of Health in cooperation with other related bodies compiles, on an annual basis, the List of outdoor bathing sites on surface waters where the bathing service is offered by the operator, and other surface waters used for bathing. It is compiled based on the long-term monitoring, performed, exclusively as in-situ measurements, by the regional hygiene stations. With respect to the fact that this way of monitoring is not only time-consuming but also financially demanding, the need for minimizing these expenses naturally arises.
The paper deals with the issue of pollution of river (bottom) sediments in the Odra river basin, which is located in one of the most anthropogenically polluted areas of the Czech Republic. The presented results are based on the evaluation of river sediments collected on eight selected profiles of water bodies belonging to the Odra river basin using a battery of five ecotoxicological tests including indicator organisms of different trophic levels.
Impact of the Nuclear power plant Temelín on concentration of selected radionuclides in the hydrosphere
The paper presents results and interpretation of long-term monitoring of occurrence and behaviour of selected radionuclides in the vicinity of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant (Temelin NPP).
A computational algorithms used for improvement of the system for continuous monitoring of radioactive contamination of surface waters
The article describes practical aspects of the NASVD algorithm application in the processing of gamma spectra from the network of stations for continuous monitoring of gamma activity in river water (SAGMA).
The water quality monitoring of selected streams in Prague (which harbour in their catchment area natural bathing places) during 2018–2019 included also the monitoring of two hydrobiological indicators; the phytobenthos and macroinvertebrates communities.
The paper provides actual clear information about viruses and coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, the possibility of contamination of surface water and wastewater by this virus.
The article informs about regular, almost two-year long monitoring of municipal wastewater at selected sampling points of the Prague sewerage network. Selected illicit drugs (e.g. methamphetamine, MDMA, THC, cocaine), nicotine and its metabolites and the ethanol metabolite ethyl sulphate are monitored in municipal wastewater.
Social-economic and safety risks in area are one of the main topics in these days, which in the long term affect the stability of local societies. For identification of these risks, we can use modern technology of data collection based on the analysis of illicit substances in city wastewater, as the cities are a high-risk areas from the social perspective in the Czech Republic.
The Clean Water – a Healthy City: The usability of the existing information collection system to fulfillment of goals
The contribution is part of the Clean Water – a Healthy City project, which deals with the prediction of the possible occurrence of hazardous chemicals during the accidental pollution and floods. Lists the databases that are currently on the subject and with their practical applicability.
This paper reports on the structure of the autonomous station for monitoring artificial gamma activity in surface water bodies for the purposes of emergency preparedness of the Czech Republic. A simple design based on the NaI(Tl) submersible detector powered by a combined solar and wind source has been employed.
The First Czechoslovak Republic hydrobiological stations – The beginnings of scientific fish research in Moravia
Field stations represent one of the forms of fishery or fishpond research. Their origins can be found at the end of the 19th century, but this type of research program flourished during the interwar era. At that time, two of the oldest and most important hydrobiological stations in Moravia – Lednice (1922) and Velké Meziříčí (1928) – were established.
When we looked back to the history, we found out that water recreation in Prague had a long tradition. The Vltava river lidos were very popular as a leisure activity in Prague. A possible expansion of places for swimming and water recreation in Prague represents the main aim of the project – Possibility of water recreation in Prague (from history to the present days).
Water quality of the Prague’s streams. Part 2: tributaries to the Šeberák pond and to the Hostivař reservoir
The possibility of a recreational use of some of the Prague reservoirs is limited mainly by the quality of the tributaries. The article follows the previous one and sums up the results of the water quality monitoring in selected profiles of the tributaries of the Šeberák pond (the Vestecký and the Kunratický streams) and of the Hostivař dam (the Botič and the Pitkovický streams) during 2018.
Results of water quality observation in the selected profiles on the Motolský and Litovický streams during the year 2018 are presented. Monitoring of water quality parameters was focused mainly on the nutrients content (nitrogen and phosphorus), chlorophyll-a concentrations and on the phytoplankton and zooplankton species composition.
High eutrophication is the main factor that has recently disabled the Jordán water reservoir for water supply and recreational purposes. Large-scale dredging of sediments was done between years 2011 and 2014. Thereafter a complex monitoring of water quality has been initiated since 2015.
In this article, water quality and the assessment of anthropogenic pollution in sediments of the middle course of the Elbe River oxbow lakes Kozelská and Vrť were studied. It is widely accepted that the oxbow lakes are extremely significant ecosystems. However, a large amount of contaminated material may deposit in these lakes. The research of lake Kozelská was chosen especially to its proximity to the chemical factory Spolana in Neratovice, which used to be the biggest source of pollution of the Elbe River.
This article aims to present to the general public the results of the assessment of the ecological status/potential and chemical status of surface water bodies categories “river“ and “lake“ for the period 2013 to 2015 in the Czech Republic. The assessment was carried out in 2017 by the Water Research Institute of T. G. Masaryk, p. r. i.
Water elements represent a significant part of the environment of cultural heritage sites, conservation zones and areas. To fulfil the required functions, which may include social, historical, recreational and educational, but also environmental functions; it is necessary to ensure their corresponding target state.
Past tests of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, nuclear energy facilities and tritium of natural origin are main sources of tritium in the environment. Thanks to its presence in environment and its favourable properties, tritium is used as a radiotracer.
The use of automatic samplers for detailed monitoring of substance concentrations and balance is nowadays an important part of special monitoring of surface waters. The average results of routine monitoring (consisting of point samples) are often underestimated over the real situation.
The impact of oxygen and nitrates availability on phosphorus cycle in sediments – an example of the Vranov Reservoir
The inflow parts of eutrophic reservoirs typically exhibit exacerbated rates of primary production, with concomitant increase in organic matter sedimentation. Its microbial remineralization leads to the consumption of electron acceptors.
Based on existing phosphorus data series in the Slapy and Orlík reservoirs and their main tributaries, we reconstructed P inputs to the reservoirs from the catchment during 1961–2016 and compiled empirical models of P retention.
Odra River Alarm Modul (ORAM) will be part of the NAVAROSO project. There are no results of tracer studies of the Czech part of the Odra River in the last twenty years. That´s the reason, why tracer experiment data of the Svitava River were used for analysis.
The paper outlines the possibilities of using the epidemiological approach to the analysis of municipal wastewater to monitor the lifestyle of the population, its dietary habits, the environmental impacts on humans, the assessment of the state of health of the population and monitoring the consumption of illicit drugs and other substances in the monitored population
This article deals with new Czech Standard 75 7221 Water quality – Classification of surface water quality  and replaces the previous 19 years old standard . It was necessary to take into account actual demands of the surface water protection from two points of view: pollution indicator selection and current environmental quality standards. The range of pollution indicators and limit values of water classification were revised.
The aim of this study is a summary of problems dealing with microbial pollution of flowing surface waters in the Czech Republic. Limits of counts of indicator microorganisms in current legislation and technical standards are presented, together with characteristics of the mostly used indicators of faecal pollution and methods of their detection.
Development of selected radionuclides in surface water in the vicinity of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant in the period 1990–2016
The paper presents results and interpretation of long-term monitoring of occurrence and behaviour of radioisotopes 3H, 90Sr and 137Cs in surface water in the vicinity of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant. 3H, 90Sr and 137Cs originate predominantly from residual contamination due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl disaster in the last century.