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Direct monitoring of water vapor from the free water level of the Vavřinecký pond and its influence on the hydrological balance

With increased average air temperature, there is an increase in water vapour from a water surface. Between 2020 and 2022, evaporation from the water surface was observed with a floating evaporimeter at Vavřinecký pond in the Central Bohemian region. A floating evaporimeter monitors evaporation from the water surface along with basic meteorological quantities directly on the surface of the water reservoir, so its results should be more accurate than calculations based on data from nearby meteorological stations. The results show that in all three years evaporation exceeded precipitation by more than 100 mm between April and September. However, the issue of the influence of small water reservoirs on the hydrological balance is a very complex topic, where the assessment of negative and positive effects is not always black and white and requires detailed investiga-tion.

Drought warning system and local threshold limits

Droughts and floods are extreme hydrological phenomena that are currently increasing in frequency due to the growing impact of climate change, and can have significant effects on our lives. Within the “PERUN” research project, an assessment of drought conditions and their development in the Czech Republic is being developed, along with the innovation of the warning system by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI). Drought is a natural phenomenon characterized by a gradual onset, long duration, and low dynamics, which requires a specific approach. The amendment to the Water Act introduces the obligation of regular reporting on drought and the establishment of a predictive service to be conducted by CHMI. Tools are being developed for long-term prediction of water resource conditions and a methodology for drought and water scarcity management plans. These plans aim to ensure water supply, protect the environment, and minimize the economic impacts. The decision-making body for issuing measures based on the drought plans is the Drought Commission, which operates at the regional level. The warning information is available on the HAMR web portal, which also displays local threshold limits for individual water resources.

Interview with RNDr. Radim Tolasz, Ph.D., climatologist of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute

Today, one individual cannot quickly mitigate the current impact of climate change that the entire world is facing by changing their behaviour. However, the promotion and spread of education is one of the main keys to making positive changes in a significant part of the population. In an interview for VTEI, the Czech representative in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), climatologist RNDr. Radim Tolasz, Ph.D., from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI), describes further steps to mitigate the effects of climate change or, for example, his own first professional experience after 1980.