Hydraulics, hydrology and hydrogeology

Mini-JET device as a tool for determination of soil erodibility characteristics

The article describes a method for determining the erodibility of incohesive agricultural soils by means of the critical shear stress measuring. The “Jet Erosion Test” (JET) was used to determine the critical shear stress. The mea-
surement was performed using a modified Mini-JET device. The device is very suitable for field measurements, because it is small, light, requires a relatively small amount of water, and can be operated by single person. The principle of measuring the critical shear stress of the soil is based on monitoring the rate of erosion crater formation by the action of a water jet of known kinetic energy. Based on the erosion crater development, the erosion parameters of the soil, such as the critical shear stress and the erodibility coefficient, can be calculated.

Problematics of archive map data interpretation, specifically the wetland habitats

The article presents available on-line archive maps from the websites of the Archive of the Surveying Office and the Geoinformatics Laboratory of the J. E. Purkyně University, that provide an overview of the historical wetland habi-
tats location. The main research question is to find out the potential use of historical maps for the identification of the historical wetlands in the Czech Republic and the evaluation of various interpretations of wetland habitats based on these sources. Examples of wetlands on historical map data in the upper part of the Výrovka River basin are presented.

A retrospective view of the Šumperk water supply system up to the 1960s

The article focuses on the water industry sector. It deals with the development of drinking water supply in Šumperk town from the Middle Ages to the 1960s. According to the water supply network development, the text is structured into individual chapters, focusing on the interesting period of the late 19th century, when a municipal water plant was established. The water plant was also the first company managed by the city council at its establishment. It was an excellent good practice example for similar towns in the Czech lands, both technologically and operationally. Subsequent chapters focus on expanding the water supply network, reservoirs, and intake areas, which had to be sized for the increasing water consumption associated with the city‘s dynamic development in the late 19th and first half of the 20th century. The final chapter summarises the development of the municipal waterworks project from 1945 until the year when the town of Šumperk was connected to the water intake sources from the Kouty-Šumperk group water supply system. The paper is an inspiring retrospective look into the history of the municipal water supply. It can also be a helpful comparison with the current state, building possibilities and limits of the water supply infrastructure.

Drought in the Upper Metuje Basin in 2014–2019

In the years 2014–2019, there was a historic drought in the Czech Republic. The Department of Hydrology and Hydrogeology of the T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute has been carrying out long-term hydrological and hydrogeological observations in the upper Metuje basin where this drought manifested itself significantly. The upper part of the catchment area of the Metuje River is located in the Police Cretaceous basin geological formation.

The alternative detemination of R-factor (Rainfall erosivity factor) in the Husí Creek catchment

Hodnocení erozní účinnosti deště je v současnosti těžištěm výzkumu v oblasti stanovení erozního ohrožení půdy. V rámci empirického modelování pomocí modelů rodiny USLE (the Universal Soil Loss Equation) je erozní účinnost deště reprezentována tzv. R faktorem, jehož hodnotu lze stanovit řadou doporučených postupů. Tento článek představuje možné alternativní způsoby určení hodnoty R faktoru na základě ročních a měsíčních sum srážkových úhrnů.

Quantification of rill erosion using contactless methods

S překotným vývojem v oblasti geoinformačních a komunikačních technologií se objevují nové možnosti mapování a kvantifikace erozních procesů způsobených přívalovými srážkami. Pro získání relevantních výsledků je důležitá kvalita, hustota a rozsah vstupních dat. Rychlý a poměrně levný sběr přesných geodat umožňují bezpilotní letecké prostředky (UAV – z anglického Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). S využitím metod digitální fotogrammetrie je možné z pořízených leteckých snímků rekonstruovat morfologii terénu odpovídající času měření.

Preservation of drinking water demand from water reservoirs in climate change conditions

This study presents interim results of an evaluation of a potential climate change impact on the preservation of drinking water demand provided by water reservoirs in the timeframe of the year 2050. Hydrological and water sources and demands balance procedures have been applied, including modelling of the storage ability of water resources and water supply systems.

Sensitivity analysis of selected input parameters of the numerical model HEC-RAS in and floodplain flow calculations

This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author.   Souhrn Hydraulické výpočty proudění vody v korytech vodních toků a záplavových územích se v současné inženýrské praxi provádějí primárně s použitím 1D, 2D a spřažených 1D/2D numerických modelů. Matematický model je v případě zmiňované 2D schematizace obvykle založen na tzv. rovnicích proudění v mělkém… Read more »

Prediction model of water quality around Prague

This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author.   Souhrn V poslední době se velmi diskutuje – a to nejen mezi odbornou veřejností – o dopadech změny klimatu na vodní režim v přírodní krajině. Řešení OP Praha – pól růstu se zaměřilo i na krajinu kulturní v bezprostřední blízkosti města… Read more »

Adaptation of towns and municipalities to floods and drought

This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author.   Souhrn Realizace komplexních adaptačních opatření je v posledních letech významným trendem ve všech velkých městech a obcích Evropy. Potřeba přizpůsobení se změně klimatu, vyznačující se střídáním krátkých a intenzivních povodňových epizod [1] a dlouhých období sucha, donutila představitele měst a obcí… Read more »

History and future development of rainfall-runoff characteristics on the outskirts of Prague

This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author.   Souhrn Tento příspěvek prezentuje studii vývoje srážkoodtokových charakteristik v šesti povodích na okraji Prahy od roku 1920 s výhledem do roku 2050. Kvůli neexistujícímu dlouhodobému monitoringu bylo hodnocení provedeno prostřednictvím srážkoodtokového modelování v prostředí HEC-HMS. Klíčovým vstupem pro hydrologické… Read more »

Groundwater formation in urban areas regarding peripheral parts of Prague

This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author.   Souhrn Podzemní voda je nedílnou součástí hydrosféry a hydrologického cyklu ve zdravé krajině, která je schopna lépe odolávat hydrologickým extrémům, jako jsou povodně nebo dlouhodobé sucho. Hlavním zdrojem podzemní vody jsou srážky. V urbanizovaných oblastech je řada překážek… Read more »

Surface Water Status Assessment for the Third Cycle River Basin Management Plan of the Czech Republic

The aim of this article is to acquaint the professional public with the summary results of the assessment of chemical status and ecological status/potential of surface water bodies “river” and “lake” categories in the Czech Republic for 2016–2018.
This assessment is one from the basis for preparation of the Third River Basin Management Plan (2021–2027) at all its levels: sub-basin plans, national plans, and international plans of the Elbe, Danube, and Oder river basin districts.

Evaporation from TGM WRI evaporimeter stations

Evaporation from water surface significantly affects the overall hydrological balance of a river basin. Direct measurement of evaporation is complicated and not as common as the measurement of other quantities (e.g. precipitation or air temperature). Therefore, evaporation is often determined using formulas requiring available meteorological quantities as input data.

Growth and decline of fishery in Poděbrady and Nymburk Estates from the point of view of historical hydrology

This contribution presents a current occurrence of drought periods and declines of fishponds (including entire fishpond systems), in Poděbrady and Nymburk counties. Such relation is not straightforward, when we consider fishponds as reservoirs of water and energy.

Fishponds in Hracholusky Reservoir drainage basin – results from screening

Series of 16 fishponds was monitored as a part of a drainage basin of Hracholusky reservoir, which is subject of a recovery project. All the fishponds were eutrophic – hypertrophic due to wastewaters from villages and little cities (including overflows from sewers) and/or due to too intensive production of “hunters ducks” – the phenomenon that is rarely mentioned.

Characterization of an artificially generated rainfall used for a soil erosion research

A rainfall simulator is a common laboratory tool for soil erosion research. Typical objective of the rainfall experiments is the evaluation of various factors on soil erosion processes, such as the effect of rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, soil characteristics, soil management, crop residues on the soil surface, plot’s slope and length.

Update of empirical relationships for calculation of free water surface evaporation based on observation at Hlasivo station

Evaporation from free water surface is one of the essential components of water circulation in nature and significantly affects the overall water balance of the catchment. Due to the complicated direct measurement, it is often calculated from formulas that require available meteorological variables as input data.

Mathematical estimation of watercourse bathymetry – Bathy_supp software

Topographic data play an important role in the hydrodynamic modelling of flood events. An accurate and precise digital elevation model (DEM) with a bathymetric description of the river channel is often required. DEMs can be derived from various data sources, e.g. ground surveying or remote sensing techniques.

Runoff generation monitoring on the hillslopes of Jizera and Šumava Mountains using tracing experiments for MIPs model

The contribution presents experiments with artificial rainfall and a tracer in the Jizera Mountains which are indispensable for hillslope modelling with MIPs (Multiple Interacting Pathways [1]). Experiments on 2 hillslopes in the Lužická Nisa catchment in the Jizera Mountains and on one hillslope in the Šumava Mountains are described in detail.

Determination of the extent of soil unprotected by vegetation in the period of rainstorms to assess erosion risk

The article describes the method, the source data, and the results of analyses of bare soil by remote sensing and its relation to soil erosion risk. The method was tested on the parcels of AGRA Řisuty, s. r. o. Data from the satellites Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 were used for detecting the presence of vegetation cover on each parcel.

Assessment of changes of long-term flow characteristics for the period 2001–2015 over the reference period 1961–2000 in selected Slovak gauging stations

The period 2000 to 2015 is a period in which we have observed significant differences and extremes in the hydrological regime of Slovak flows. The Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, in the framework of its tasks, processes a comprehensive assessment of hydrological characteristics focused on drought assessment.

Water quality and the assessment of anthropogenic pollution of the Elbe River oxbow lake sediments

In this article, water quality and the assessment of anthropogenic pollution in sediments of the middle course of the Elbe River oxbow lakes Kozelská and Vrť were studied. It is widely accepted that the oxbow lakes are extremely significant ecosystems. However, a large amount of contaminated material may deposit in these lakes. The research of lake Kozelská was chosen especially to its proximity to the chemical factory Spolana in Neratovice, which used to be the biggest source of pollution of the Elbe River.

Determination of soil loss from erosion rills by method of digital photogrammetry and method of volumetric quantification

This article presents the first results of the research focused on the recording of rill erosion, and its evaluation using the outputs of the two methods that can be used to determine the soil yield. The consequences of erosion have been documented on a selected pilot site, both as a direct method of volume quantification (using an profile meter – so called soil erosion bridge) and with the use of unmanned aircraft in close-up photogrammetry (UAV).

HAMR: Online drought management system – operational management during a dry episode

Increasing occurrence of drought periods in the Czech Republic has highlighted a necessity of legislation modification. At the same time, a need has emerged for tools supporting decision making and water resources management at various levels during the drought periods.

Catalogue of green water retention measures in the landscape and its application in the web map application

A catalogue of green water retention measures in landscape represents one of the results of long term project financed by the Ministry of Environment. The main goal of the catalogue was to summarize a set of measures with positive effects on water retention of landscape, with low impact on ecological status of water bodies.

Study on the assessment of the effect of nature-friendly measures in the Olešná in Pelhřimov catchment area using the BILAN, HEC-HMS and HYPE models

A catalogue of natural restoration measures was created within several research programs under Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic, especially in the program for hydrological draught mitigation. As a next step suitable catchments for their application were identified. With use of hydrological models, the effect of designed restoration measures on three aspects of hydrological regime was assessed.