This study presents interim results of an evaluation of a potential climate change impact on the preservation of drinking water demand provided by water reservoirs in the timeframe of the year 2050. Hydrological and water sources and demands balance procedures have been applied, including modelling of the storage ability of water resources and water supply systems.
Hydraulics, hydrology and hydrogeology
Sensitivity analysis of selected input parameters of the numerical model HEC-RAS in and floodplain flow calculations
This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author. Souhrn Hydraulické výpočty proudění vody v korytech vodních toků a záplavových územích se v současné inženýrské praxi provádějí primárně s použitím 1D, 2D a spřažených 1D/2D numerických modelů. Matematický model je v případě zmiňované 2D schematizace obvykle založen na tzv. rovnicích proudění v mělkém… Read more »
This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author. Souhrn V poslední době se velmi diskutuje – a to nejen mezi odbornou veřejností – o dopadech změny klimatu na vodní režim v přírodní krajině. Řešení OP Praha – pól růstu se zaměřilo i na krajinu kulturní v bezprostřední blízkosti města… Read more »
This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author. Souhrn Realizace komplexních adaptačních opatření je v posledních letech významným trendem ve všech velkých městech a obcích Evropy. Potřeba přizpůsobení se změně klimatu, vyznačující se střídáním krátkých a intenzivních povodňových epizod  a dlouhých období sucha, donutila představitele měst a obcí… Read more »
This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author. Souhrn Tento příspěvek prezentuje studii vývoje srážkoodtokových charakteristik v šesti povodích na okraji Prahy od roku 1920 s výhledem do roku 2050. Kvůli neexistujícímu dlouhodobému monitoringu bylo hodnocení provedeno prostřednictvím srážkoodtokového modelování v prostředí HEC-HMS. Klíčovým vstupem pro hydrologické… Read more »
This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author. Souhrn Podzemní voda je nedílnou součástí hydrosféry a hydrologického cyklu ve zdravé krajině, která je schopna lépe odolávat hydrologickým extrémům, jako jsou povodně nebo dlouhodobé sucho. Hlavním zdrojem podzemní vody jsou srážky. V urbanizovaných oblastech je řada překážek… Read more »
Surface Water Status Assessment for the Third Cycle River Basin Management Plan of the Czech Republic
The aim of this article is to acquaint the professional public with the summary results of the assessment of chemical status and ecological status/potential of surface water bodies “river” and “lake” categories in the Czech Republic for 2016–2018. This assessment is one from the basis for preparation of the Third River Basin Management Plan (2021–2027) at all its levels: sub-basin plans, national plans, and international plans of the Elbe, Danube, and Oder river basin districts.
Waterwork Vranov was completed in 1934, where at that time innovative technology of Johnson-type and cylinder regulating valves was used. During their operation, they did not require major repairs, only routine maintenance and minor repairs was made.
An interesting and useful topic that can be addressed within the European Union is the issue of transboundary aquifers. Groundwater is often used as an important water resource on both sides of a common state border and can therefore be affected by cross-border waters.
Evaporation from water surface significantly affects the overall hydrological balance of a river basin. Direct measurement of evaporation is complicated and not as common as the measurement of other quantities (e.g. precipitation or air temperature). Therefore, evaporation is often determined using formulas requiring available meteorological quantities as input data.
Drought and water shortages are concepts that need to be spaced properly differentiate. Drought is a temporary decrease in water availability and is considered a natural phenomenon. Drought is characterized by its gradual onset, considerable area and long duration.
The paper presents the results of hydraulic research of flow through bridge structure with free water surface and submerged inlet on a physical model. It compares current knowledge with measured data and discusses the differences.
Simulation of the restoration of the meander Jordan of the Orlice River and its impact on the adjacent quaternary aquifer
An urgent issue of the water management institutions in the Czech Republic is enhancement of the water retention in the environment. One of the solutions presented by Elbe river basin authority is restoration of the meander Jordan of the Orlice River.
The article presents the results of the evaluation of the fishpond dams shape in the region of Kostelec and Kouřim in the Central Bohemian Region. The shape of the dams was assessed on the basis of a detailed digital terrain model derived from the data of Digital Relief Model of 5th Generation.
Growth and decline of fishery in Poděbrady and Nymburk Estates from the point of view of historical hydrology
This contribution presents a current occurrence of drought periods and declines of fishponds (including entire fishpond systems), in Poděbrady and Nymburk counties. Such relation is not straightforward, when we consider fishponds as reservoirs of water and energy.
The article focuses on the identification of fishponds dawn on the maps of the 1st Austrian Military Survey. The presented analyses are based mainly on manual work with old maps, because the maps used for the study lack the precision and detail needed for automated processing in the GIS environment.
Series of 16 fishponds was monitored as a part of a drainage basin of Hracholusky reservoir, which is subject of a recovery project. All the fishponds were eutrophic – hypertrophic due to wastewaters from villages and little cities (including overflows from sewers) and/or due to too intensive production of “hunters ducks” – the phenomenon that is rarely mentioned.
A rainfall simulator is a common laboratory tool for soil erosion research. Typical objective of the rainfall experiments is the evaluation of various factors on soil erosion processes, such as the effect of rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, soil characteristics, soil management, crop residues on the soil surface, plot’s slope and length.
The paper deals with the results of measurements of the weirs suitable for measuring small or minimal discharge. The research is focus on determination of the discharge coefficients for low weir heads. The results of measurements for triangular, rectangular and circular weir are present.
This contribution is a complication of the biggest floods in the Czech Republic that have occurred in the last hundred years and provides descriptions of these individual disasters.
Update of empirical relationships for calculation of free water surface evaporation based on observation at Hlasivo station
Evaporation from free water surface is one of the essential components of water circulation in nature and significantly affects the overall water balance of the catchment. Due to the complicated direct measurement, it is often calculated from formulas that require available meteorological variables as input data.
Evaporation from free water surface is one of the important factors affecting the total water balance of a catchment. Since direct measurement of evaporation is complicated, evaporation is in practice often calculated using formulas based on common meteorological variables.
The paper analyses effects of snowmaking on stream flows in the Giant Mountains, detailed analysis of runoff conditions and differences in amount of water contained in technical and natural snow. Attention is paid to possible interaction between water abstraction and water pollution.
The article deals with the hydraulic and structural assessment of a sector gate in Děčín and Český Krumlov based on the evaluation of experimental measurements performed on a physical hydraulic model In the Water Management Laboratory of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, CTU in Prague.
Evaporation from the free surface is one of the basic elements of the hydrological balance. Its average value has been changing over the years due to the progressive climate change, as is the case with other elements of the hydrological balance.
Topographic data play an important role in the hydrodynamic modelling of flood events. An accurate and precise digital elevation model (DEM) with a bathymetric description of the river channel is often required. DEMs can be derived from various data sources, e.g. ground surveying or remote sensing techniques.
Runoff generation monitoring on the hillslopes of Jizera and Šumava Mountains using tracing experiments for MIPs model
The contribution presents experiments with artificial rainfall and a tracer in the Jizera Mountains which are indispensable for hillslope modelling with MIPs (Multiple Interacting Pathways ). Experiments on 2 hillslopes in the Lužická Nisa catchment in the Jizera Mountains and on one hillslope in the Šumava Mountains are described in detail.
Determination of the extent of soil unprotected by vegetation in the period of rainstorms to assess erosion risk
The article describes the method, the source data, and the results of analyses of bare soil by remote sensing and its relation to soil erosion risk. The method was tested on the parcels of AGRA Řisuty, s. r. o. Data from the satellites Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 were used for detecting the presence of vegetation cover on each parcel.
Assessment of changes of long-term flow characteristics for the period 2001–2015 over the reference period 1961–2000 in selected Slovak gauging stations
The period 2000 to 2015 is a period in which we have observed significant differences and extremes in the hydrological regime of Slovak flows. The Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, in the framework of its tasks, processes a comprehensive assessment of hydrological characteristics focused on drought assessment.
In this article, water quality and the assessment of anthropogenic pollution in sediments of the middle course of the Elbe River oxbow lakes Kozelská and Vrť were studied. It is widely accepted that the oxbow lakes are extremely significant ecosystems. However, a large amount of contaminated material may deposit in these lakes. The research of lake Kozelská was chosen especially to its proximity to the chemical factory Spolana in Neratovice, which used to be the biggest source of pollution of the Elbe River.
Determination of soil loss from erosion rills by method of digital photogrammetry and method of volumetric quantification
This article presents the first results of the research focused on the recording of rill erosion, and its evaluation using the outputs of the two methods that can be used to determine the soil yield. The consequences of erosion have been documented on a selected pilot site, both as a direct method of volume quantification (using an profile meter – so called soil erosion bridge) and with the use of unmanned aircraft in close-up photogrammetry (UAV).
Increasing occurrence of drought periods in the Czech Republic has highlighted a necessity of legislation modification. At the same time, a need has emerged for tools supporting decision making and water resources management at various levels during the drought periods.
Catalogue of green water retention measures in the landscape and its application in the web map application
A catalogue of green water retention measures in landscape represents one of the results of long term project financed by the Ministry of Environment. The main goal of the catalogue was to summarize a set of measures with positive effects on water retention of landscape, with low impact on ecological status of water bodies.
Study on the assessment of the effect of nature-friendly measures in the Olešná in Pelhřimov catchment area using the BILAN, HEC-HMS and HYPE models
A catalogue of natural restoration measures was created within several research programs under Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic, especially in the program for hydrological draught mitigation. As a next step suitable catchments for their application were identified. With use of hydrological models, the effect of designed restoration measures on three aspects of hydrological regime was assessed.
Determining of effectiveness of the action program according to the nitrate directive in a period of climate change
The Nitrate Directive defines rules for a delimitation of vulnerable zones and sets out tools to reduce nitrate pollution. The fundamental instrument is the Action Program and the Good Agricultural Practices .
The paper presents the draft of the plan for drought and water scarcity in the Czech Republic. The plan is a basic document of drought protection. It serves to coordinate activities in a given area during drought and water shortages.
As part of the Drought project, a comprehensive monitoring of watercourses and land in their catchment areas was launched in the Czech Republic to assess the impact of the implementation of revitalization actions to protect against the effects of drought.
Past tests of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, nuclear energy facilities and tritium of natural origin are main sources of tritium in the environment. Thanks to its presence in environment and its favourable properties, tritium is used as a radiotracer.
Mathematical models have been used in hydrology for decision making support for many years. They allow the realization of virtual experiments that can be done empirically either very difficult or not at all. The SWAT model, developed in the US, has gained world wide popularity but its application in the Czech Republic is quite rare yet.
The use of automatic samplers for detailed monitoring of substance concentrations and balance is nowadays an important part of special monitoring of surface waters. The average results of routine monitoring (consisting of point samples) are often underestimated over the real situation.