Hydraulics, hydrology and hydrogeology

Radioactive indicators in surface waters of the Ploučnice river basin

The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is engaged in systematic monitoring and evaluation of radiological indicators in surface waters. The article describes changes in the values of radiological indicators in surface waters in the time series from 1967 to the present. The evolution of total volume alpha and beta activity, uranium concentration, and radium activity (226Ra) is described on characteristic profiles in the area of uranium-containing raw materials mining, in the vicinity of Stráž pod Ralskem, where the mining of radioactive raw materials has already been suppressed. The Ploučnice river flows through this mining area and flows into the Elbe river in Děčín near the Hřensko border crossing, where activities of radiological indicators are also monitored and documented.

Multi-Criteria Analysis of the Dyje basin

This article deals with applications of the specific method of multicriteria analysis (MCA) and its use in the identification of areas within the Czech Republic where adaptation measures to the consequences of climate change would be most effective. MCA was chosen due to its comprehensive approach and the simplicity of working with available data in the Czech Republic. The first MCA have already been applied in the Pilsen and Pardubice Regions within the framework of the creation of the strategic document Regional Strategy of Adaptation Measures (Regionální strat-egie adaptačních opatření, ReSAO), whose aim was to assess the vulnerability of the entire area of these regions. The results from both strategies are expedient from the point of view of drafting adaptation measures, and it was therefore decided to use MCA as part of a larger project in the Dyje basin.

Agroforestry and its effect on the complex of hydropedological properties of the soil

The aim of this article is to evaluate landscape retention capacity based on the use of soil protection technology at the chosen site and to compare selected hydropedological characteristics in the context of land management. Therefore, broken and intact soil samples are taken regularly and laboratory analyses are carried out. The chosen site is located in the Šardice cadastral area, Hodonín district, South Moravian region. At the chosen site it is possible to consider grass strips with one or more rows of trees as a possible agroforestry system, where temperature and humidity are measured continuously by TOMST TMS-4 moisture sensors. The results show that the way land is used and cultivated has an impact on hydropedological properties of the land. We can influence them both positively and negatively.

Planned restoration of aquatic ecosystems in Prague 4

Prague 4 district in accordance with the National Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change [1], Concept for Protection from the Effects of Drought of the Czech Republic [2], Strategy for Adaptation of the Capital City of Prague to Climate Change [3] and Methodology for Rainwater Management in the City [4, 5], similarly to other progressive-minded parts of Prague, is preparing investment actions to support and strengthen green-blue infrastructure in the city. One of the most visible measures with truly demonstrable effects on the support of biodiversity and water retention in the landscape is the restoration of aquatic ecosystems.

Historic floods on Rakovnický stream

This year, TGM WRI is planning to publish a book by Kašpárek, Elleder, Šírová, Dragoun, and Kašpárek Jr., dedicated to floods in the Rakovnický stream basin. It is primarily focused on the occurrence of floods before the start of instrumental observation, that is before 1898. Its purpose is to maximally expand knowledge about the frequency, seasonality, and most significant flood cases, their causes, extent, impact, and damage over the last 500 years.

Impact of weir construction at locality Abovce (Slovakia) on groundwater levels – a case study from Slaná river basin

The construction of weirs on rivers affects the dynamics of groundwater levels. The weir built on the river Slaná in the year 2010 between the village of Abovce and Chanava brought the opportunity to study such impact due to preexisting groundwater monitoring wells of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. to verify the impact of the constructed weir on groundwater dynamics in the area, records of weekly data were used ranging from 1986 to 2018. In addition, the spatial range of influenced areas was carried out using geographical information systems, and spatial interpolation techniques were used. The results showed that immediately after the construction of the weir, the groundwater level rose significantly.

Potential of areas protected for surface water storage to mitigate the impacts of climate change on drinking water supply

In the Czech Republic, areas morphologically, geologically and hydrologically suitable for surface water storage to mitigate the adverse effects of floods and droughts are defined through the General Plan for Surface Water Accu-mulation Areas. In the context of climate change, these locations create potential for possible adaptation measures. This article describes the assessment of the potential of selected sites for water supply under climate change condi-tions by means of hydrological and water balance modelling.

Small headwater catchments – spatial delimitation and their classification in terms of runoff risks

This article presents an aerial delineation of small headwater catchments up to 5 km2 in the Czech Republic. The aim was not only to present the delineation of these catchments, but also their categorization in terms of the characteristics affecting the formation of direct runoff. Direct runoff caused by torrential rainfall is a very dynamic process of episodic nature and has a major impact specifically in small catchments. The delineation of small headwater catchments, where the aforementioned processes take place, can complement the standard hierarchical classification of basins in the Czech Republic. These basins make up 80 % of the Czech Republic.

Modelling flow distribution in inlet galleries

The main objective of the article was to optimize the facilities used to distribute flows in inlet galleries, which are used not only in water treatment plants, but also in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). While working in the field of WWTP, it was found that there are no optimized facilities in the Czech Republic or globally for uniform distribution of flows to any number of inlet branches into reservoirs of the same flow rate. Currently, in most unregulated facilities, there are significant differences between the various inlet branches to the reservoirs. In regulated facilities, the outlets must be regulated at each change in flow rate and, for changes in the number of inlets to the reservoir (e.g., due to reservoir shutdown), each outlet must be manually adjusted (e.g., using a sluice gate) so that all inlets to reservoirs have the same flow rate.

Interview with Jaroslav Pollert, professor at the Faculty of Civil Engineering at CTU and a successful Czechoslovak representative in canoeing

Jaroslav Pollert senior, Olympic Games Barcelona 1992, leader of the canoeist expedition Do you remember the first time that water appealed to you so much that you decided to dedicate your professional and private life to it? It is quite a difficult question. to say that the motive was building “dams” in the streams after the rain would probably… Read more »

Banská Štiavnica water management system – an important UNESCO technical monument

From the 16th to the 19th century, a unique water management system was created in Banská Štiavnica and its vicinity, which served the local mines. The water management system consisted of water channels – collecting ditches, which concentrated surface water from Štiavnické vrchy (Štiavnica mountains) and
brought it to the mining water reservoirs (tajchy). Tajchy are water reservoirs that were built to accumulate surface water from the collecting ditches. Water from the tajchy was discharged into water canals – transporting ditches that brought water to the shafts. Here, the water was piped into the depths of the mine, where the obtained water energy powered pumping machines that pumped groundwater out of the flooded mines. Once the groundwater was drained, the miners could continue extracting gold and silver. Water-powered processing facilities also operated in Banská Štiavnica and its vicinity, which processed the extracted
ore from the mines. For centuries, the Banská Štiavnica water management system set in motion more than a hundred water-powered devices. The system consisted of about 60 tajchy, 170 km of ditches, and 15 water tunnels.

Estimation of natural groundwater resources in hydrogeological zones in the Czech Republic under changing climatic conditions 1981–2019

In the Czech Republic, hydrogeological zones were defined as early as 1965 as a part of the regional hydrogeological survey. A hydrogeological zone (HGZ) is defined as a unit with similar hydrogeological conditions, defined tectonically and geologically, in whose territory a certain type of aquifer and groundwater circulation prevails. The boundaries of HGZs have been modified over time and their numerical hydrogeological characteristics have been determined by various methods; one of the basic characteristics is the amount of natural groundwater resources. Natural resources are the dynamic component of groundwater and are expressed in m3.s-1. They are determined by the recharge of water to the aquifer system (precipitation, groundwater overflows from other aquifers, natural infiltration of surface water, etc.). If the HGZ is hydrogeologically closed, the long-term average of its recharge from precipitation and the long-term average of baseflow can be used as an estimate of the natural groundwater resource. In the “Groundwater Rebalance Project”, estimates of natural groundwater resources in 152 hydrogeological zones in the Czech Republic were processed and are presented in the report [1]. The natural resources were determined by several different methods using data from 1971–2010 and 2000–2010. 

Assessment of the possibility of changing the use of dry reservoirs

The main objective of the project “Potential use of dry reservoirs in landscape water management”, implemented between 2019 and 2021, was to develop methodological guidance describing the procedure for changing the use of dry reservoirs, for example, to retain water in the landscape. This methodological guidance is based on a two-level multi-criteria analysis (hereinafter MCA). Another aim of the project was to make a complete record of implemented dry reservoirs and polders in the Czech Republic and to present it in the form of a database and a map with professional content. Documentation of the technical condition of some existing dry reservoirs was also an important output of the project.

Professional events in 2015

This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author. Přinášíme Vám přehled odborných akcí z oboru vodního hospodářství konaných v roce 2015 a také poslední akce konané v tomto roce, na které se můžete ještě zaregistrovat. Organizační garance většiny dále uvedených odborných akcí náleží Ing. Václavu… Read more »

Atmospheric deposition as a possible source of surface water pollution (Preliminary results of the project, part 1 – heavy metals)

Concentrations of selected heavy metals in collected atmospheric precipitation
and surface water were monitored at pilot sites in the Jizera Mountains, the Moravian‑Silesian
Beskydy Mountains and the Bohemian‑Moravian Uplands (CZ) over the course of one year to determine the significance of the impact of precipitation on surface water quality in an otherwise relatively low anthropogenically influenced environment. The measurements show that for some
metals, atmospheric deposition in heavily loaded areas can cause significant inputs to streams and reservoirs, but the resulting balance is strongly influenced by the environment and its past loading.

Results and outputs of the project entitled “Support for long-term planning in the field of water management in the Krkonoše National Park with an emphasis on solving the issue of the effect of technical snowmaking on the decrease in flows with the aim of increasing the long-term effectiveness of nature and landscape protection”

This article is available in Czech only. For translation or more information on this topic, please contact author. Projekt s názvem „Podpora dlouhodobého plánování v oblasti vodního hospodářství na území Krkonošského národního parku s důrazem na řešení problematiky vlivu technického zasněžování na pokles průtoků s cílem zvýšit dlouhodobou efektivitu ochrany přírody a krajiny“ (ID projektu: TH02030080) z programu Epsilon Technologické agentury… Read more »

Centrum Voda (Center Water)

Centrum Voda je výzkumný projekt, který hledá řešení problémů vyplývajících z klimatické změny a jejího vlivu na vodní poměry. Snažíme se nalézat odpovědi na základní otázky, jestli dokážeme zajistit dostatek kvalitní vody nejen pro potřeby člověka, ale i pro naši krajinu, zda se zvládneme vyrovnat s přívalovými povodněmi a jak dále snižovat znečištění vodního prostředí.

The analysis of agricultural landscape development shown on selected cadastral districts in the upper part of the Výrovka River basin

V tomto článku jsou ve vybraných katastrálních územích s převažující plochou zemědělské půdy porovnávány aktuální land use a struktura krajiny s historickým stavem z podkladů Císařských povinných otisků stabilního katastru. Jsou zde nastíněny možnosti využití analýz historického vývoje krajiny ke krajinné obnově v zemědělských oblastech, zejména s ohledem na obnovu mokřadních ekosystémů a revitalizaci vodních toků.

Testing of a prototype separation device designed for rainwater treatment

Článek shrnuje poznatky získané v rámci řešení výzkumného projektu „Technologie separace specifických polutantů ze srážkových vod“ (TH03030223), který se zabýval čištěním srážkových vod ze zpevněných ploch a komunikací zatížených nerozpuštěnými látkami (NL), polycyklickými aromatickými uhlovodíky i těžkými kovy. Projekt si kladl za cíl vyvinout účinnou technologii, která by uvedené polutanty ze srážkových vod separovala.

Grey water footprint of pollution discharged from wastewater treatment plants in the Czech Republic registered in the water balance in the period 2002–2018 – data set

Koncept vodní stopy byl představen v roce 2002 [1] a dnes je jedním z rozšířených nástrojů pro hodnocení udržitelnosti užívání vodních zdrojů [2]. Vodní stopa patří do rodiny environmentálních stop [3], které umožňují podívat se na problémy užívání přírodních zdrojů z jiné perspektivy. Šedá vodní stopa je kvalitativní ukazatel převádějící vypouštěné znečištění na objem vody potřebný k jeho naředění na koncentrace neškodné pro životní prostředí [4].

The influence of Prague on water quality in the Vltava and the Czech Elbe

This paper deals with the development of water quality in the Elbe in the section between its confluence with the Vltava and the Hřensko border profile in 1980–2020, and with the influence of Prague on its pollution levels. After a significant improvement in 1985–2000, the quality of water discharged through the Hřensko profile today is at least at the level of the Federal Republic of Germany. Evaluation of substance transport shows that the Vltava contributes a larger share of pollution to the Elbe simply because it has higher flows. Prague contributes to pollution of the Vltava and the Elbe by discharging phosphorus.
As for other long-term indicators, it is an insignificant source.
In 2010–2020, there is a significant level of concentrations of pharmaceuticals, which come exclusively from the discharge of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Many pharmaceuticals regularly occur in concentrations of tens to hundreds of [ng/l], and resistant pharma-ceuticals (gabapentin, metformin, oxipurinol, carbamazepine) are transported to Prague from the Vltava basin through the Orlík and Slapy reservoirs with a high theoretical retention time. The transport of resistant pharmaceuticals through relevant profiles corresponds mainly to the number of inhabitants in their river basins because they obviously pass through WWTP and do not degrade further in the river either.

A retrospective view of the Šumperk water supply system from the 1960s to the present

In the second half of the 20th century, the long-term problem of supplying the town of Šumperk with drinking water was finally solved. New sources of drinking water supplemented the missing capacities in the form of surface abstraction from Divoká Desná within the newly built collec-tive water supply system, together with the use of sources in Rapotín and Olšany. A significant contribution to solving the problem was the recon-struction of the water supply network, water reservoir, and intake facilities, which reduced losses. An important factor that has reduced the water consumption of the population is, of course, the significant increase in water and sewerage prices in the last 20 years, which had an impact on Šumperk as well. The operational and organizational conditions of the town’s drinking water supply were negatively affected by society-wide de-velopment, which ultimately meant an increase in operating losses in the water supply network due to limited funds for the renewal and upgrading of the water supply network. The political changes in 1989 and the following period were reflected not only in the organizational conditions of the town’s drinking water supply, but also in the final consumption and price of drinking water, both in the Šumperk region and across the whole of the Czech Republic. With the example of Šumperk, it is also possible to illustrate the transformation of the water industry after 1989 and possible diffi-culties, new starting points, and challenges for its future development.

Impact of climate change on runoff and development of forest composition in the coming decades in a selected river basin in Slovakia

In this study, the authors dealt with the impact of climate change on the hydrological regime and runoff in a selected river basin in Slovakia. The research also aimed to estimate changes in forest communities during climate change to runoff processes in the river basin. Two scenarios of change of land use with forest communities and two global climate change scenarios were used. Land use change scenarios were created for the entire territory of the Slovak Republic at the Technical University in Zvolen. Outputs from the Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (KNMI) and Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) regional climate change models – both with the A1B emission scenario – were also used for this research. Assum-ing these scenarios, the characteristics of the hydrological regime were simulated by the distributed WetSpa rainfall-runoff model. Based on the research results, it can be estimated that the air temperature will increase, especially in winter, which could result in less snow accumulation and increased runoff in the basin.
The Hron river basin will manifest itself in an increase in mean monthly flows, especially during the autumn and winter months. This may be due to higher temperatures and earlier snowmelt in the area. However, we see that due to climate change, runoff will react in the opposite way in the sum-mer. Compared to the current situation, we assume that there will be an increase in the extremes of the runoff regime in the winter and a decrease in the summer and autumn. Climate models suggest a change in the distribution of atmospheric precipitation, which may result in an increase in floods, droughts, and other extreme weather events.

The Výrovka river basin as a suitable area for monitoring and comparing hydrological and landscape characteristics

The Výrovka river basin, as a compact area covering 542.5 km2, is very suitable for monitoring hydrological characteristics and comparing them in different landscape types. It is located on the border of the Lower Vltava and Upper and Middle Elbe sub-basins, extending in a range of 175–555 m above sea level, with a total of six landscape types according to the typology of the contemporary landscape of the Czech Republic. Simultane-ously, there is a varied mosaic in terms of geological subsoil and soil types. There have also been major changes in land use in this basin, mainly due to intensive agricultural activity and related watercourse modifications and amelioration. Monitoring activities within the project SS02030027 ”Water systems and water management in the Czech Republic in conditions of climate change” are currently taking place in the Výrovka river basin.

Detection of gully erosion using Global Navigation Satellite Systems in Myjava – Turá Lúka

SUMMARY This paper shows the partial outcomes of a study focused on monitoring gully erosion in the Myjava river basin. The study showed the progress of dynamic changes in gully erosion in the location of Turá Lúka using various surveying techniques from 2014 until present. The study shows that selection of the surveying technique depends on… Read more »

Changes in precipitation and runoff in river basins in the Czech Republic during the period of intense warming

The basic meteorological variables that affect the hydrological regime are atmospheric precipitation and air temperature. Both fluctuate not only in the short term and in the annual cycle, but also in the long term. Long-term changes in both of these variables have the character of periodic fluctuations around the mean values. Since about 1980, there has been a systematic increase in air temperature in the Czech Republic. This article provides information on how the climate fluctuations that this change brings affect the precipitation and runoff regime in our territory.

Occurrence of pesticides in the Punkva river

The Moravian Karst is the largest and most karstic area in the Czech Republic, and, as such, it is a protected landscape area (PLA). The karst area occupies a strip of Devonian limestone north of Brno. The north part of Moravian Karst is drained by the river Punkva and its headwaters. One of the biggest cave systems in central Europe is located there, Amaterska cave, which is more than 40 km long.

Despite the strict protection measures that are in place in the PLA, the presence of pollutants and potentially hazardous substances has recently been detected in the Punkva river and its catchment. The sources of this pollution are found both within the territory of Moravian Karst PLA and in the river´s catchment, and they are related to anthropogenic activities and land use. This article focuses on the occurrence of pesticides, especially triazine and azole pesticides and their polar metabolites. In 2020, a new significant contaminant, 1,2,4-triazole, a common relevant metabolite of azole pesticides, was found at the site concerned. These substances can have fatal effects not only on the endemic organisms living in the Moravian Karst, but they can also endanger human health because the local groundwater is used as a source of drinking water. Thanks to the studies carried out, the protection zones around the cave system have been extended, reducing the negative effects of agricultural activities in the area of interest.

Monitoring changes in the landscape development on the northeastern edge of the Hřebeny Mountains with a focus on wetlands

This article deals with changes in wetlands on the north-eastern edge of Hřebeny Mountains in the last 180 years. It assesses the dynamics of these landscape elements in space and time. The cadastral areas of Čisovice, Řitka, Kytín, and Nová Ves pod Pleší were selected, with a total area of 3,785.57 ha. Analysis was carried out on the basis of the Imperial obligatory prints of the maps of the stable cadastre from 1840, an orthophotomap, and field research from 2020; it distinguished wetlands in the monitored area into continuous, extinct and new. The background data were processed in ArcGIS software, version 10.7.1. The area of wetlands decreased from 289.34 ha in 1840 (7.6% of the monitored area) to 39.26 ha in 2020 (1.04% of the monitored area). Based on the study of available data, three types of wetland habitats were classified: wet meadows, wet meadows with woody plants, and ponds.

Comparison of hydrological characteristics of M-day discharges of the reference period 1981–2010 and the considered reference period 1991–2020

According to the Czech technical standard ČSN 75 1400 Hydrological data of surface waters, M-day discharges are a part of the Basic hydrological data [1]. The values of M-day discharges in water gauging stations are derived from time series of observed mean daily discharges over a defined reference period. The reference period 1981–2010 is currently used for design purposes [2]. With the end of the second decade of the 21st century, a change in the reference period for 1991–2020 is being considered. In the past, the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) provided hydrological data for the reference periods 1931–1940, 1931–1960, and 1931–1980.

Balance evaluation of selected water quality indicators on the tributaries of Vranov reservoir

Most of the reservoirs in the Czech Republic have been built as multifunctional reservoirs, with the basic functions being storage and protection. The way the catchment area upstream of a reservoir is used has a significant impact on water quality. Pollution sources can be divided into point, area, and diffuse sources. Being continuous or recurrent, point pollution is not significantly influenced by meteorological factors and it is linked to narrowly delimited areas such as settlements, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), industrial plants, agricultural facilities, etc. Area pollution is difficult to observe as it is irregular and depends on meteorological, soil, morphological, and vegetation characteristics [4]. The category of diffuse sources usually includes small diffuse point sources of pollution, namely municipal, agricultural, industrial, as well as traffic pollution, leachates from landfills, etc.

Automatic watershed delineation in the Czech Republic using ArcGIS Pro

Manual watershed delineation by watershed divides has traditionally been performed by means of an analysis of topographic maps and contour lines. With the availability of digital elevation models, watershed and streams delineation is performed automatically, which reduces the time spent on manual delineation. In this study, we introduce the process of automatic delineation and the models available within the toolbox Arc Hydro Tool Pro, created by the company ESRI for the ArcGIS Pro software. Automatic delineation was implemented by means of different methods for selected watersheds in the Czech Republic, varying in area and elevation.

Zero isochion in the framework of geomorphological regions in Czechia: its extraction from the MODIS imagery and its dynamics

Since December 2012, during every winter season, the altitude of the zero isochion (snowline) has been determined at the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute for the purposes of operational hydrology. The reason is the estimation of the amount of water stored in snow cover, which is inevitable activity for Czech hydrologists who naturally want their forecasting models to give relevant results. In order to get a better idea about current spatial distribution of snow cover in Czechia, the information on the zero isochion has been extracted from the MODIS imagery coming from the Terra satellite.

Practical examples of using GIS in hydrology at the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute

GIS technologies are widely used in the Hydrology Department of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI). The processing of geospatial data, which are used in hydrology for analytical tasks, and the development of GIS technologies in the last two decades have contributed to the spread of GIS in the CHMI practice. The use of GIS tools is shown in four examples. The first one focuses on the creation of GIS data. The second example concerns the preparation of input source data for the derivation of the hydrological characteristics of M-day discharge, which, according to Czech Standard 75 1400 Surface water hydrological data, are among the basic hydrological data. The third example describes the use of GIS in the preparation of hydrological assessments according to the above-mentioned standard (75 1400), which usually result in M-day or N-year-flood discharges in a specified profile of a certain watercourse. The fourth example focuses on the use of GIS in operational hydrological service, specifically in the development of the Flash Flood Indicator, which determines the level of risk of flash flood formation or occurrence based on current land saturation and radar rainfall estimates.

Mini-JET device as a tool for determination of soil erodibility characteristics

The article describes a method for determining the erodibility of incohesive agricultural soils by means of the critical shear stress measuring. The “Jet Erosion Test” (JET) was used to determine the critical shear stress. The mea-
surement was performed using a modified Mini-JET device. The device is very suitable for field measurements, because it is small, light, requires a relatively small amount of water, and can be operated by single person. The principle of measuring the critical shear stress of the soil is based on monitoring the rate of erosion crater formation by the action of a water jet of known kinetic energy. Based on the erosion crater development, the erosion parameters of the soil, such as the critical shear stress and the erodibility coefficient, can be calculated.