Current Issue

The influence of Prague on water quality in the Vltava and the Czech Elbe

This paper deals with the development of water quality in the Elbe in the section between its confluence with the Vltava and the Hřensko border profile in 1980–2020, and with the influence of Prague on its pollution levels. After a significant improvement in 1985–2000, the quality of water discharged through the Hřensko profile today is at least at the level of the Federal Republic of Germany. Evaluation of substance transport shows that the Vltava contributes a larger share of pollution to the Elbe simply because it has higher flows. Prague contributes to pollution of the Vltava and the Elbe by discharging phosphorus.
As for other long-term indicators, it is an insignificant source.
In 2010–2020, there is a significant level of concentrations of pharmaceuticals, which come exclusively from the discharge of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Many pharmaceuticals regularly occur in concentrations of tens to hundreds of [ng/l], and resistant pharma-ceuticals (gabapentin, metformin, oxipurinol, carbamazepine) are transported to Prague from the Vltava basin through the Orlík and Slapy reservoirs with a high theoretical retention time. The transport of resistant pharmaceuticals through relevant profiles corresponds mainly to the number of inhabitants in their river basins because they obviously pass through WWTP and do not degrade further in the river either.

A retrospective view of the Šumperk water supply system from the 1960s to the present

In the second half of the 20th century, the long-term problem of supplying the town of Šumperk with drinking water was finally solved. New sources of drinking water supplemented the missing capacities in the form of surface abstraction from Divoká Desná within the newly built collec-tive water supply system, together with the use of sources in Rapotín and Olšany. A significant contribution to solving the problem was the recon-struction of the water supply network, water reservoir, and intake facilities, which reduced losses. An important factor that has reduced the water consumption of the population is, of course, the significant increase in water and sewerage prices in the last 20 years, which had an impact on Šumperk as well. The operational and organizational conditions of the town’s drinking water supply were negatively affected by society-wide de-velopment, which ultimately meant an increase in operating losses in the water supply network due to limited funds for the renewal and upgrading of the water supply network. The political changes in 1989 and the following period were reflected not only in the organizational conditions of the town’s drinking water supply, but also in the final consumption and price of drinking water, both in the Šumperk region and across the whole of the Czech Republic. With the example of Šumperk, it is also possible to illustrate the transformation of the water industry after 1989 and possible diffi-culties, new starting points, and challenges for its future development.

Impact of climate change on runoff and development of forest composition in the coming decades in a selected river basin in Slovakia

In this study, the authors dealt with the impact of climate change on the hydrological regime and runoff in a selected river basin in Slovakia. The research also aimed to estimate changes in forest communities during climate change to runoff processes in the river basin. Two scenarios of change of land use with forest communities and two global climate change scenarios were used. Land use change scenarios were created for the entire territory of the Slovak Republic at the Technical University in Zvolen. Outputs from the Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (KNMI) and Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) regional climate change models – both with the A1B emission scenario – were also used for this research. Assum-ing these scenarios, the characteristics of the hydrological regime were simulated by the distributed WetSpa rainfall-runoff model. Based on the research results, it can be estimated that the air temperature will increase, especially in winter, which could result in less snow accumulation and increased runoff in the basin.
The Hron river basin will manifest itself in an increase in mean monthly flows, especially during the autumn and winter months. This may be due to higher temperatures and earlier snowmelt in the area. However, we see that due to climate change, runoff will react in the opposite way in the sum-mer. Compared to the current situation, we assume that there will be an increase in the extremes of the runoff regime in the winter and a decrease in the summer and autumn. Climate models suggest a change in the distribution of atmospheric precipitation, which may result in an increase in floods, droughts, and other extreme weather events.

The Výrovka river basin as a suitable area for monitoring and comparing hydrological and landscape characteristics

The Výrovka river basin, as a compact area covering 542.5 km2, is very suitable for monitoring hydrological characteristics and comparing them in different landscape types. It is located on the border of the Lower Vltava and Upper and Middle Elbe sub-basins, extending in a range of 175–555 m above sea level, with a total of six landscape types according to the typology of the contemporary landscape of the Czech Republic. Simultane-ously, there is a varied mosaic in terms of geological subsoil and soil types. There have also been major changes in land use in this basin, mainly due to intensive agricultural activity and related watercourse modifications and amelioration. Monitoring activities within the project SS02030027 ”Water systems and water management in the Czech Republic in conditions of climate change” are currently taking place in the Výrovka river basin.

BÍLINA – The story of the purple river

Ibra Ibrahimovič (1967) has been photographing his black-and-white series ”Střepy severních Čech” (Pieces of Northern Bohemia) since the early 1990s. He became known to the public as a photographer of the struggle to save the village of Libkovice in 1993, and later in 2003 with an award-winning series about farmer Rajter. With the support of the… Read more »

SMART WATER

”SMART WATER” is a project funded from the Norwegian Financial Mechanisms as part of the REINE programme, running from 2nd August 2021 to 30th June 2022. The project is coordinated by the non-profit research and training centre METCENAS, o. p. s., its partner being the organisation AVAS, s. r. o., which is responsible for the dissemination and… Read more »