Dewatering sewage sludge using sludge drying beds with wetland vegetation, the so-called Sludge Treatment Reed Bed units
At present, the problem of waste disposal is growing worldwide; its secondary use is therefore more than desirable. A pressing problem for many small municipalities that need to build or reconstruct a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is solving the issue of processing the resulting sludge and its stabilization, sanitation, and further application. It is not unusual for small municipal WWTPs to lack a complete in-situ sludge management (including dewatering etc.). Sewage sludge is thus often pumped out at high cost and transported to a large WWTP. The main goal for the real application of sewage sludge is to prevent future damage to soils, plants, and the health of animals and people. For this reason, taking into account the substances currently present in the sludge (e.g., organic micropollutants), it is advisable to sufficiently pre-treat the sludge, not just sanitize it to eliminate above-limit microbial pollution.
The Výrovka river basin as a suitable area for monitoring and comparing hydrological and landscape characteristics
The Výrovka river basin, as a compact area covering 542.5 km2, is very suitable for monitoring hydrological characteristics and comparing them in different landscape types. It is located on the border of the Lower Vltava and Upper and Middle Elbe sub-basins, extending in a range of 175–555 m above sea level, with a total of six landscape types according to the typology of the contemporary landscape of the Czech Republic. Simultane-ously, there is a varied mosaic in terms of geological subsoil and soil types. There have also been major changes in land use in this basin, mainly due to intensive agricultural activity and related watercourse modifications and amelioration. Monitoring activities within the project SS02030027 ”Water systems and water management in the Czech Republic in conditions of climate change” are currently taking place in the Výrovka river basin.
The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the applicability of VNIR spectroscopy (spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum) for the prediction of forest soil properties. The most appropriate combinations of statistical pre-processing (no pre-processing, continuum removal, 1st and 2nd derivative) and processing (PLSR – partial least squares regression, PCR – principal component regression, SVM – support vector machines) methods in specific spectral bands were sought for each soil property.
In the past, the environment of the Czech Republic was contaminated with anthropogenic radionuclides as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapon testing and the Chernobyl accident. The paper summarises results of vertical migration of 137Cs in soil in selected sites, performed as part of collecting data for ground water vulnerability assessment. Three sites with a different land cover were included (forest, meadow and arable land). In order to determine vertical migration of anthropogenic radionuclides, soil samples were collected up to the depth of 100 cm and subsequently analysed using the gamma-ray spectrometry.
Study of the effectiveness of the small municipal sourcess sewage sludge extensive stabilization for their use as a fertilizer
The article is devoted to the presentation of partial results of a study aimed at determining the potential use of extensive sludge dewatering technology for small municipal WWTPs (up to 1000 PE) in the conditions of the Czech Republic. The study has shown that the use of technology based on extensive sludge dewatering and their stabilization in sludge dewatering reed beds with suitable wetland vegetation can be an alternative to other technologies. Especially in combination with constructed wetland (CW) based WWTPs, which are characterized by lower sludge production.
Fidings from testing of selected biochemical products to the heritage sites water elements environment adjustment
The article is focus on the presentation of knowledge from testing of selected biochemical preparations for the treatment of the environment of water elements of historical gardens and parks and cultural monuments.