Droughts and floods are extreme hydrological phenomena that are currently increasing in frequency due to the growing impact of climate change, and can have significant effects on our lives. Within the “PERUN” research project, an assessment of drought conditions and their development in the Czech Republic is being developed, along with the innovation of the warning system by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI). Drought is a natural phenomenon characterized by a gradual onset, long duration, and low dynamics, which requires a specific approach. The amendment to the Water Act introduces the obligation of regular reporting on drought and the establishment of a predictive service to be conducted by CHMI. Tools are being developed for long-term prediction of water resource conditions and a methodology for drought and water scarcity management plans. These plans aim to ensure water supply, protect the environment, and minimize the economic impacts. The decision-making body for issuing measures based on the drought plans is the Drought Commission, which operates at the regional level. The warning information is available on the HAMR web portal, which also displays local threshold limits for individual water resources.
Atmospheric deposition as a possible source of surface water pollution (Results of the project, part 2. – polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)
From October 2020 to September 2021, in two forest micro-catchments in the Czech Republic, the quality of wet atmospheric deposition (bulk and throughfall) was monitored simultaneously with the surface water quality in the local watercourse, humus, and the moss species Pleurozium schreberi. An evaluation is presented of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) burden of the above-mentioned matrices. The first site was chosen in the Beskid Mountains in the Moravian-Silesian region, in the cadastre of the village of Bystřice in the upper basin of the Suchý stream (altitude 590 to 835 m a.s.l.). This area is affected by industrial activities. The second reference site was chosen in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands near Košetice observatory (altitude 520 m a.s.l.).
Assessment of trends in concentrations of chemical and physico-chemical indicators of the status of surface water bodies
This article presents the results of trend assessment of selected chemical and physicochemical indicators of surface water status. The assessment approach is based on a similar procedure for assessing significant upward trends of pollutants and trend reversals in groundwater bodies. The procedure is based on measured concentrations from 2010 to 2018 and estimates concentrations at the end of 2021, 2024, and 2027. For the trend assessment, data from Czech river basin state enterprises were used to assess the ecological status/potential and the chemical status of surface water bodies. However, only part of the profiles with measured concentrations met the time series requirements. The assessment of trends towards the end of 2024 and 2027 shows that some indicators (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, adsorbable organically bound halogens – AOX, and nitrate nitrogen) are projected to improve compared to the status as of 2018. On the other hand, a slight deterioration is predicted for biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nickel, and ammonia nitrogen.
Pesticides are still an important group of substances involved in surface water pollution. Their increased occurrence in watercourses in the agricultural landscape is mainly linked to rainfall-runoff conditions, types of cultivated crops, and methods of agricultural management. In order to capture these factors, passive sampling techniques were chosen for the assessment of the load of these substances in selected catchments of water supply reservoirs in the administration of Povodí Moravy State Enterprise. These techniques consist of continuous exposure for several weeks with gradual (integrative) capture of pollution on suitable sorbents. The POCIS (polar organic chemical integrative samplers) were chosen in this work – widely used samplers suitable for capturing polar organic substances. They were applied in eight consecutive sampling campaigns to cover the entire growing season. The aim was to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics (in monthly steps) of selected pesticides and their metabolites into five water supply reservoirs. Due to the scope of the obtained data, this article is focused on the presentation of the results of tributaries into water supply reservoirs Vír I, Opatovice, and Ludkovice, which were monitored in 2021. When the sampling rate Rs was published, it was possible to recalculate the pollution captured by the passive sampler to average concentration during exposure. The results showed which tributaries into the reservoirs were loaded by these hazardous substances in the individual periods of the growing season. The results can be compared with the type of crops grown in a given year.
Atmospheric deposition as a possible source of surface water pollution (Preliminary results of the project, part 1 – heavy metals)
Na pilotních lokalitách v Jizerských horách, Moravskoslezských Beskydech a na Českomoravské vrchovině byly v průběhu jednoho roku sledovány koncentrace vybraných těžkých kovů v atmosférické depozici a povrchové vodě s cílem určit významnost vlivu srážek na kvalitu povrchových vod v antropogenně málo ovlivněném prostředí. Dosažené výsledky ukazují, že u vybraných kovů může atmosférická depozice v některých případech představovat významný vnos do povrchových vod. Na výslednou bilanci látkového odnosu má zásadní vliv charakter prostředí a jeho zatížení v minulosti.
Impact of the Nuclear power plant Temelín on concentration of selected radionuclides in the hydrosphere
The paper presents results and interpretation of long-term monitoring of occurrence and behaviour of selected radionuclides in the vicinity of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant (Temelin NPP).
The paper provides actual clear information about viruses and coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, the possibility of contamination of surface water and wastewater by this virus.
The article deals with space-time dynamic of non-polar and polar compounds load into the drinking water reservoir Švihov in Želivka river basin during the whole vegetation season by passive sampling techniques. The monitoring on the nine tributaries of the Švihov water reservoir and on the raw water inlet to the Želivka drinking water treatment plant took place for eight months from April to November 2018.
Past tests of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, nuclear energy facilities and tritium of natural origin are main sources of tritium in the environment. Thanks to its presence in environment and its favourable properties, tritium is used as a radiotracer.
On March 21, 2018, a seminar on the assessment of surface water status for the period 2013–2015 was held at the Novotného lávka in Prague, under the auspices of the Waste Waters-Purity Waters Group. The event was organized by the Czech Science and Technology Water Management Company.
This article deals with new Czech Standard 75 7221 Water quality – Classification of surface water quality  and replaces the previous 19 years old standard . It was necessary to take into account actual demands of the surface water protection from two points of view: pollution indicator selection and current environmental quality standards. The range of pollution indicators and limit values of water classification were revised.
The aim of this study is a summary of problems dealing with microbial pollution of flowing surface waters in the Czech Republic. Limits of counts of indicator microorganisms in current legislation and technical standards are presented, together with characteristics of the mostly used indicators of faecal pollution and methods of their detection.
Development of selected radionuclides in surface water in the vicinity of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant in the period 1990–2016
The paper presents results and interpretation of long-term monitoring of occurrence and behaviour of radioisotopes 3H, 90Sr and 137Cs in surface water in the vicinity of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant. 3H, 90Sr and 137Cs originate predominantly from residual contamination due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl disaster in the last century.
The article describes hydrological and hydrogeological conditions in a small part of the Lišanský stream catchment near Rakovník. Natural conditions of this area have been influenced by human activity from the 15th century.
Cooperation of Water Research Institute and Povodí companies, state enterprise within the framework of radiation monitoring network of the Czech Republic
The paper sums up the legislative framework and cooperation of TGM Water Research Institute and Povodí companies, state enterprises.
The current situation in the field of water resources protection zones in the Czech Republic is problematic for a long time, not only in terms of their definition, but also the correct setting measures or data availability to the public.
Interview with Ing. Daniel Pokorný Director of the Department of State Administration of Water Management and River Basin Management at the Ministry of Agriculture
Interview with Ing. Daniel Pokorný Director of the State Administration of Water Management and River Basin Management at the Ministry of Agriculture on the topic of surface water and flood protection hydraulic structures.
On 20. 12. 2016 was held seminar Protective zones of drinking water sources from surface sources in the House of technicians in Prague.
Almost the entire 2015 precipitation was below normal and on the contrary temperature significantly above normal. Precipitation deficit began to show early in 2015 and peaked in mid-August with a further deepening in the autumn months.
In the last issue of the journal VTEI (5/2016), the reader can get acquainted with the opinion of SOVAK ČR to support “as soon as possible a complete ban on the use of glyphosate,” with regard to the possible contamination of surface waters with this substance (the main ingredient of total herbicides Roundup type) and its residues.
Although the European Commission on 29 June this year decided on a temporary extension of the use of chemical products containing the herbicide glyphosate for 18 months, the Association of Water Supply and Sewerage Czech Republic, IB (SOVAK) and the European Association of water companies (EUREAU) are pushing as soon as possible complete a ban on glyphosate.
The research team, consisting of experts from the TGM Water Research Institute, p. r. i. (RNDr. Dana Baudišová, Ph.D., Ing. Tomáš Mičaník, Ing. Eduard Hanslík, Ph.D., Mgr. Denisa Němejcová and others), started from February 2016 work on the research project “The quality and evaluation of surface waters”.
Recently, the Czech Republic has been affected with negative impacts of hydrological extremes (such as floods and droughts). This is the reason why different types of regulation modifications have been discussed in order to address increasing water scarcity and variability throughout a year.
Temporal and spatial changes in concentrations of selected radionuclides (tritium, radiostrontium and radiocaesium) were assessed in the parts of the Vltava and Elbe river basins affected by the operation of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant.
Basic hydrological data are provided for any profile of the river network and serves as a basis eg. for the issue water management decisions, etc.