Development of land use and impact on water resources of hydrogeological unit 4232 Ústecká syncline in the Svitava river basin

The research area of hydrogeological unit 4232 Ústecká Syncline in the Svitava river basin (Ústecká synklinála v povodí Svitavy) is an important area of underground drinking water sources. These resources are of the highest quality and among the most abundant resources in the entire Czech Republic. The development of land use is closely connected with the development of settlements and industry (textile) in the research area, which in their importance far exceeded the borders of the region. Gradual development created pressure on natural resources, especially water; the demands on the quantity of service and drinking water increased, while the quality of water was affected by industrial and agricultural pollution. Despite the observed decrease in population in the last twenty to thirty years, we can see the expansion of settlements, mainly due to new construction on agri-cultural land, which is slightly compensated by the expansion of permanent grasslands and forests. With regard to current and future climate change, this increase, together with a slight increase in water bodies, can be considered as a positive phenomenon.

Drought warning system and local threshold limits

Droughts and floods are extreme hydrological phenomena that are currently increasing in frequency due to the growing impact of climate change, and can have significant effects on our lives. Within the “PERUN” research project, an assessment of drought conditions and their development in the Czech Republic is being developed, along with the innovation of the warning system by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI). Drought is a natural phenomenon characterized by a gradual onset, long duration, and low dynamics, which requires a specific approach. The amendment to the Water Act introduces the obligation of regular reporting on drought and the establishment of a predictive service to be conducted by CHMI. Tools are being developed for long-term prediction of water resource conditions and a methodology for drought and water scarcity management plans. These plans aim to ensure water supply, protect the environment, and minimize the economic impacts. The decision-making body for issuing measures based on the drought plans is the Drought Commission, which operates at the regional level. The warning information is available on the HAMR web portal, which also displays local threshold limits for individual water resources.

Groundwater formation in urban areas regarding peripheral parts of Prague

Groundwater is an integral part of the hydrosphere and hydrological cycle in a healthy landscape, which is better able to withstand hydrological extremes such as floods or prolonged drought. The main source of groundwater is precipitation. There are a number of barriers for infiltration in urban areas – urban and industrial buildings, as well as increasing areas with impermeable surfaces. The aim of the paper is to draw attention to the importance of groundwater in the urban landscape and to possible measures to support the infiltration of precipitation.
The research took place in the territory of outer Prague, where there is an intensive expansion of the built-up area, which is accompanied by a lower infiltration of precipitation, compared to the open landscape. Based on the evaluation of pedological, geological and hydrogeological conditions of the area, a methodology for evaluating the suitability of the area for infiltration was developed. Based on it, two types of maps were created: an infiltration potential map evaluating primarily the permeability of the soil and rock environment, and an infiltration capacity map, in addition emphasizing the size of the free storage volume for infiltrated water. Maps are available for viewing in the map application on the project website

Baseflow evolution from the part of Bohemian-Moravian Highlands

This article is focused on evolution of baseflow from part of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands. This is a topical issue and, given the current situation, is also often discussed. The problem of groundwater and its recharge is an important (not only) hydrogeological problem, as climatic conditions in recent years, especially low precipitation, have a negative impact on groundwater recharge.